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DevOps Engineer Interview Questions and Answers for 2024
Apr 17, 2024

DevOps Engineer Interview Questions and Answers for 2024

Master DevOps for 2024 with our comprehensive guide on interview questions and answers, covering key concepts, practices, and trends for success.

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Feeling a mix of excitement and nervous anticipation about your upcoming DevOps engineer interview? You're not alone! Preparing for an interview can be daunting, especially with high stakes and fierce competition. But fret no more! This blog is your ultimate guide to conquering the most commonly asked DevOps interview questions for 2024.


Here, we'll delve into everything from the fundamentals of continuous integration to the latest DevOps tools. We'll provide answers that not only boost your confidence but also sharpen your understanding of what it takes to excel in a DevOps environment. For those looking to navigate their DevOps career with a plethora of opportunities, Weekday connects you with companies eager for your expertise.


Let's embark on this journey together! Explore these essential questions, and ensure you walk into your interview equipped with knowledge, ready to impress, and one step closer to landing your dream DevOps engineer job.

DevOps Tools

DevOps is a set of practices that combines software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops). It aims to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high software quality. To achieve this, various tools are employed at different stages of the DevOps lifecycle.


List of Main Tools by Category


Version Control:

  • Git: Widely used for source code management, allowing multiple developers to work on a project simultaneously.
  • Subversion (SVN): A centralized version control system that tracks changes to files and directories over time.


Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD):

  • Jenkins: An open-source automation server used to automate the build, test, and deployment phases.
  • GitLab CI: A part of GitLab, providing CI/CD pipelines along with source code management.


Configuration Management:

  • Ansible: An open-source tool for software provisioning, configuration management, and application deployment.
  • Puppet: A configuration management tool that automates the management and configuration of servers.



  • Docker: A platform for developing, shipping, and running applications in containers.
  • Kubernetes: An open-source system for automating the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.


Monitoring and Logging:


Infrastructure as Code (IaC):

  • Terraform: An open-source tool for building, changing, and versioning infrastructure safely and efficiently.
  • CloudFormation: A service by AWS that allows you to model and set up your AWS resources.


These tools are integral to the DevOps ecosystem, helping teams automate the software delivery process and improve collaboration between development and operations.


DevOps Interview Questions For Freshers

DevOps interview questions
DevOps Interview Questions For Freshers


Who is a DevOps Engineer?

A DevOps engineer is a professional who works at the intersection of development (Dev) and operations (Ops) to improve collaboration, streamline workflows, and automate processes. They are responsible for integrating and automating the tasks of software development and IT operations teams to enhance the speed, efficiency, and quality of software delivery. DevOps engineers typically have a strong background in coding, scripting, and system administration, and they use various tools and practices to implement continuous integration, continuous delivery, and infrastructure as code.


Why DevOps Has Become Famous?

DevOps has become famous because it addresses many of the challenges associated with traditional software development and deployment processes. It promotes a culture of collaboration and communication between development and operations teams, leading to faster time to market, improved software quality, and higher customer satisfaction. DevOps practices such as continuous integration, continuous delivery, and automation also help organizations respond more quickly to market changes and customer feedback, making them more competitive in the fast-paced tech industry.


The Use of SSH in Operations

SSH (Secure Shell) is a protocol used in operations for securely accessing and managing remote systems. It provides a secure channel over an unsecured network, enabling administrators to log in to remote servers, execute commands, and transfer files. SSH is widely used in DevOps for tasks such as automated deployments, configuration management, and server maintenance, as it ensures secure and encrypted communication between machines.


What is Configuration Management?

Configuration management is the process of maintaining and tracking the configuration of software and hardware components in an IT system. It involves identifying and documenting the characteristics of system components, controlling changes to these components, and ensuring that the system remains consistent and reliable over time. Configuration management is a crucial aspect of DevOps, as it helps in automating the deployment and management of infrastructure and applications, reducing manual errors, and ensuring that environments are consistent and reproducible.


The Importance of Configuration Management in DevOps

In DevOps, configuration management plays a vital role in achieving automation and consistency across environments. It ensures that all system components are configured correctly and consistently, which is essential for reliable and repeatable deployments. Configuration management tools such as Puppet, Chef, Ansible, and Terraform allow DevOps teams to automate the provisioning and management of infrastructure, making it easier to scale and maintain systems. This leads to faster development cycles, reduced downtime, and improved system reliability.


Meaning of CAMS in DevOps

CAMS stands for Culture, Automation, Measurement, and Sharing. It is a framework that represents the core values of DevOps:

  • Culture: Promoting a culture of collaboration, openness, and transparency between development and operations teams.
  • Automation: Implementing automation in all stages of the software delivery process, from code integration to testing, deployment, and monitoring.
  • Measurement: Using metrics and monitoring tools to measure the performance of applications and infrastructure, and making data-driven decisions.
  • Sharing: Encouraging the sharing of knowledge, tools, and best practices among team members and across the organization.

CAMS emphasizes the holistic approach of DevOps, where cultural change, automation, continuous feedback, and collaboration are key to achieving operational excellence.


Explanation of Continuous Integration (CI)

Continuous Integration (CI) is a DevOps practice where developers frequently integrate their code changes into a shared repository, ideally several times a day. Each integration is automatically verified by building the application and running automated tests. This helps in identifying and addressing integration errors quickly, improving software quality, and accelerating the development process.


The Necessity of Continuous Integration

Continuous Integration is necessary because it:

  • Reduces integration problems and conflicts between code changes, leading to fewer bugs and faster resolution.
  • Provides immediate feedback to developers about the impact of their changes, enabling quick adjustments.
  • Automates the build and testing process, saving time and reducing manual errors.
  • Supports a more agile and responsive development cycle, allowing teams to deliver features and fixes more quickly.


Overview of Continuous Testing (CT)

Continuous Testing (CT) is the process of executing automated tests as part of the software delivery pipeline to obtain immediate feedback on the business risks associated with a software release. CT integrates testing into every stage of the development lifecycle, from initial development to production deployment, ensuring that any defects are detected and addressed early.


Three Important DevOps KPIs (Key Performance Indicators)

  1. Deployment Frequency: Measures how often deployments are made. A higher frequency indicates a more agile and responsive development process.
  2. Lead Time for Changes: Measures the time it takes for a change to go from code commit to deployment in production. Shorter lead times indicate faster delivery of features and fixes.
  3. Mean Time to Recovery (MTTR): Measures the average time it takes to recover from a failure. A shorter MTTR indicates a more resilient and reliable system.


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Intermediate Interview Questions


Explanation of Different Phases in DevOps Methodology

The DevOps methodology can be divided into several phases, each focusing on a specific aspect of the software development lifecycle:

  1. Planning: This phase involves defining the project requirements, scope, and objectives. Collaboration tools like Jira or Trello are often used for task management and planning.
  2. Coding: Developers write code in this phase, often using version control systems like Git to manage and track changes.
  3. Building: The code is compiled into executable artifacts using build tools like Maven or Gradle.
  4. Testing: Automated tests are run to ensure code quality and functionality. This includes unit tests, integration tests, and acceptance tests.
  5. Releasing: The software is packaged and prepared for release, often using continuous integration tools like Jenkins or CircleCI.
  6. Deploying: The software is deployed to production environments, which can be automated using tools like Ansible, Puppet, or Kubernetes.
  7. Operating: The software is monitored and managed in the production environment to ensure it is running smoothly.
  8. Monitoring: Continuous monitoring tools like Prometheus or Nagios are used to track the performance of the application and infrastructure.
  9. Feedback: Feedback from users and stakeholders is collected and used to inform future development.


Differences Between DevOps and Agile Methodology

  • Focus: Agile focuses on the software development process, emphasizing iterative development and collaboration among cross-functional teams. DevOps extends this collaboration to include operations teams, focusing on the entire software delivery lifecycle.
  • Scope: Agile is primarily concerned with the development phase, while DevOps covers development, deployment, and operations.
  • Tools: Agile uses tools like Scrum or Kanban for project management, whereas DevOps relies on automation tools like Jenkins, Docker, and Kubernetes for continuous integration, continuous delivery, and infrastructure management.
  • Culture: Both Agile and DevOps promote a culture of collaboration, but DevOps also emphasizes automation, monitoring, and continuous feedback loops.


Differentiation Between Continuous Deployment and Continuous Delivery

  • Continuous Delivery (CD): In continuous delivery, every change made to the code is automatically tested and prepared for release to a production environment. However, the actual deployment is triggered manually by a human decision.
  • Continuous Deployment: Continuous deployment goes a step further by automatically deploying every change that passes through the pipeline to production, without human intervention.


Antipatterns of DevOps

Antipatterns in DevOps are practices that seem beneficial but hinder efficiency and collaboration. Some common DevOps antipatterns include:

  • Siloed Teams: Keeping development and operations teams separate, leads to communication barriers and inefficiencies.
  • Overemphasis on Tools: Relying too heavily on tools without focusing on the cultural and collaborative aspects of DevOps.
  • Manual Processes: Failing to automate repetitive tasks, resulting in slower processes and increased human error.
  • Ignoring Metrics: Not measuring the effectiveness of DevOps practices, leading to a lack of improvement and insight.


Introduction to Memcached

Memcached is an open-source, high-performance, distributed memory caching system. It is used to speed up dynamic web applications by caching data and objects in RAM to reduce the number of times an external data source (such as a database or API) must be read. Memcached is commonly used to cache the results of database queries, API calls, or page rendering.


Various Branching Strategies in Version Control Systems

Branching strategies are approaches to managing branches in version control systems like Git. Some common strategies include:

  • Feature Branching: Creating a new branch for each feature or bug fix, which is merged back into the main branch upon completion.
  • Git Flow: A structured approach that involves using separate branches for features, releases, and hotfixes.
  • Trunk-Based Development: Developers work on a single branch (the "trunk" or "main" branch), and short-lived feature branches are merged frequently.


List of KPIs for Gauging DevOps Success

Some key performance indicators (KPIs) for gauging DevOps success include:

  • Deployment Frequency: How often new releases are deployed.
  • Lead Time for Changes: The time it takes for a change to go from code commit to production.
  • Change Failure Rate: The percentage of changes that result in failures or require hotfixes.
  • Mean Time to Recovery (MTTR): The average time it takes to recover from a failure.


What is CBD in DevOps?

CBD in DevOps stands for "Component-Based Development." It is an approach that focuses on building software from reusable and modular components, which can improve efficiency, reduce development time, and facilitate easier maintenance and updates.


Explanation of Resilience Testing

Resilience testing is a type of testing that evaluates how well a system can recover from failures, withstand stress, and continue to operate under adverse conditions. It is crucial in DevOps to ensure that applications and infrastructure can handle unexpected disruptions and maintain availability.


Difference Between Continuous Testing and Automation Testing

  • Continuous Testing: A practice in DevOps where automated tests are run continuously throughout the software development lifecycle to provide immediate feedback on the quality and readiness of the software.
  • Automation Testing: The use of automated tools to execute tests without human intervention. Automation testing can be a part of continuous testing but is not limited to it.


Overview of the DevOps Pipeline

The DevOps pipeline is a set of automated processes and tools that facilitate the continuous delivery of software. It typically includes stages such as source code management, continuous integration, automated testing, continuous delivery, and monitoring. The pipeline automates the flow of code from development to production, enabling faster and more reliable software releases.


Role of Ansible in DevOps

Ansible is an open-source automation tool used in DevOps for configuration management, application deployment, and task automation. It uses YAML syntax for defining playbooks (automation scripts) and can manage complex multi-tier IT environments. Ansible's simplicity and agentless architecture make it a popular choice for automating repetitive tasks and ensuring consistency across environments.


Functioning of Ansible

Ansible works by connecting to nodes (servers or devices) using SSH and executing predefined tasks described in playbooks. It uses declarative language, meaning that users specify the desired state of the system rather than the exact steps to achieve it. Ansible then ensures that the system is brought into the specified state, making changes only when necessary.


Contribution of AWS to DevOps

Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides a wide range of cloud-based services and tools that support DevOps practices. These include services for continuous integration and delivery (AWS CodePipeline, AWS CodeBuild), infrastructure as code (AWS CloudFormation, AWS CDK), configuration management (AWS OpsWorks), and monitoring and logging (Amazon CloudWatch). AWS enables scalable and flexible DevOps workflows, allowing teams to focus on development rather than infrastructure management.


Preparatory Approach for Using DevOps in Project Development

To prepare for using DevOps in project development, consider the following steps:

  1. Assess Current Processes: Evaluate existing development and operations practices to identify areas for improvement.
  2. Foster a Collaborative Culture: Encourage collaboration and communication between development and operations teams.
  3. Implement Automation: Identify repetitive tasks that can be automated, such as testing, deployment, and monitoring.
  4. Choose the Right Tools: Select tools that align with your DevOps goals and integrate well with your existing infrastructure.
  5. Start Small: Begin with a small project or a single aspect of your workflow to test and refine your DevOps practices.
  6. Continuously Improve: Use feedback and metrics to continuously improve your DevOps processes and practices.


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DevOps Interview Questions For Experienced

DevOps interview questions
DevOps Interview Questions For Experienced


What is the Concept of 'Shift Left to Reduce Failure'

The concept of "Shift Left to Reduce Failure" in DevOps refers to the practice of moving testing and quality assurance activities earlier in the software development lifecycle. By identifying and addressing issues in the development phase, teams can reduce the likelihood of defects and failures in production. This approach leads to faster feedback, improved quality, and reduced costs associated with fixing issues later in the process.


Discussion on Post Mortem Meetings in DevOps

Post-mortem meetings in DevOps are conducted after a major incident or failure to analyze what went wrong, why it happened, and how similar issues can be prevented in the future. These meetings are collaborative, involving all relevant stakeholders, and focus on learning and improvement rather than assigning blame. The outcomes of post-mortem meetings often lead to actionable insights that improve the reliability and resilience of systems.


Concept Behind sudo in Linux OS

In Linux OS, "sudo" (short for "superuser do") is a command that allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified in the sudoers file. It is used to grant administrative privileges to users for specific commands without giving them full root access, providing a balance between security and flexibility.


Architecture of Jenkins

Jenkins is a popular open-source automation server used in DevOps for continuous integration and continuous delivery. The architecture of Jenkins consists of:

  • Master: The central node that manages the overall Jenkins environment, schedules builds, and coordinates with agents.
  • Agents: Nodes that execute the build jobs dispatched by the master. Agents can run on various platforms and are responsible for executing the build steps.
  • Plugins: Extendable components that add functionality to Jenkins, allowing integration with various tools and services.
  • Build Queue: A queue where build requests are held until an agent is available to execute them.
  • Executor: A component of an agent that carries out the build tasks.


Explanation of 'Infrastructure as Code' (IaC)

Infrastructure as Code (IaC) is a practice in DevOps where infrastructure provisioning and management are automated and treated as code. This approach allows for consistent and repeatable infrastructure deployment using tools like Terraform, Ansible, or AWS CloudFormation. IaC enables version control, collaboration, and automation of infrastructure, leading to more reliable and scalable environments.


What is Pair Programming?

Pair Programming is an agile software development technique where two programmers work together at one workstation. One programmer, the "driver," writes the code, while the other, the "navigator," reviews each line of code as it is typed. The roles are frequently switched. Pair programming promotes knowledge sharing, reduces errors, and improves code quality.


Explanation of Blue/Green Deployment Pattern

The Blue/Green Deployment Pattern is a strategy for releasing applications with minimal downtime and risk. It involves maintaining two identical environments: one (Blue) hosting the current version of the application, and the other (Green) hosting the new version. After testing the new version in the Green environment, traffic is switched from Blue to Green, effectively deploying the new version without downtime. If any issues arise, traffic can be quickly switched back to the Blue environment.


Explain the Dogpile Effect

The Dogpile Effect occurs when the cache expires and multiple requests simultaneously hit the server for the same resource, leading to a surge in load. This can happen in caching systems when a popular cache item expires, and multiple clients attempt to refresh it simultaneously. Techniques like "cache stampede prevention" or "lock and fetch" are used to mitigate this effect.


What are the Steps for Code Sanity Checking Before Commits in Git Repositories

Before committing code to a Git repository, it's essential to perform sanity checks to ensure code quality and consistency:

  1. Run Automated Tests: Execute unit tests and integration tests to ensure that new changes don't break existing functionality.
  2. Code Linting: Use a linter to check for syntax errors and enforce coding standards.
  3. Review Changes: Use git diff to review the changes made and ensure that only intended modifications are being committed.
  4. Build Locally: Compile the code and run it locally to ensure that it builds and runs as expected.
  5. Peer Review: Consider using a pull request workflow for peer review and approval before merging changes.


How to Ensure the Script Runs with Each New Commit in Git

To ensure that a script runs with each new commit in Git, you can use Git hooks, specifically the pre-commit hook:

  1. Create a Pre-commit Hook: Navigate to the .git/hooks directory in your repository and create a file named pre-commit.
  2. Add Your Script: Write or paste the script you want to run before each commit into the pre-commit file. Make sure the script is executable.
  3. Make It Executable: Run chmod +x .git/hooks/pre-commit to make the hook executable.
  4. Test the Hook: Make a commit to test that the script runs as expected. The commit will be blocked if the script exits with a non-zero status.


DevOps Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

DevOps interview questions
DevOps Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)


Which of the following best represents DevOps?

a) A set of tools

b) A job title

c) A culture and set of practices

d) A software package


What is the primary goal of DevOps?

a) Reducing software costs

b) Improving collaboration between development and operations

c) Outsourcing IT operations

d) Automating software testing


DevOps is often seen as an extension of which of the following models?

a) Waterfall model

b) Agile model

c) Spiral model

d) V-model


What is the role of change management in a DevOps environment?

a) To prevent any changes to the system

b) To document changes for audit purposes

c) To ensure changes are implemented efficiently and with minimal risk

d) To automate software development


Which of the following is a difference between Agile and DevOps?

a) Agile focuses on software development, while DevOps focuses on software deployment

b) Agile is a set of practices, while DevOps is a job title

c) Agile emphasizes collaboration between developers and testers, while DevOps emphasizes collaboration between developers and operations

d) Agile is an older concept than DevOps


What is the main reason for conflict between development and operations teams?

a) Different programming languages

b) Different goals and objectives

c) Different locations

d) Different management


Which technique is used to convert normal changes into standard changes?

a) Agile methodology

b) Change standardization

c) Continuous integration

d) Version control


Which command is used to remove a directory in a Unix/Linux environment?

a) del

b) erase

c) rm -r

d) delete


What is the concept of Bi-Modal IT?

a) Using two different IT infrastructures

b) Managing traditional IT and agile IT simultaneously

c) Using both hardware and software for IT operations

d) Having two different IT departments


Which of the following elements does not contribute directly to the DevOps culture value stream?

a) Collaboration

b) Automation

c) Isolation

d) Measurement



The path to becoming a DevOps engineer in 2024 is paved with technical expertise, collaboration skills, and a continuous learning mindset. This guide has equipped you with the knowledge to navigate this exciting field, whether you're a fresher or an experienced professional. Mastering these concepts will not only enhance your skillset but also position you as a valuable asset in the ever-evolving world of DevOps.


Ready to take the next step? As you prepare for interviews, remember the key to success lies in demonstrating your ability to bridge the gap between development and operations, fostering a culture of collaboration, and leveraging automation for efficiency and innovation. Embrace the journey, stay curious, and keep honing your skills to thrive in the dynamic world of DevOps.

For those seeking to propel their DevOps career forward, Weekday offers a platform to connect with top companies and explore exciting job opportunities. Visit Weekday and unleash your potential in the ever-growing field of DevOps!

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